Research Seminar - Cognitive Science - Body appearance and eating behaviors

On March 26, 2019

Possibility to participate by webconference / Free Registration / Open to researchers and Reseach and Innovation Committee Members / In French

14.00 - 14.40
Jérémie Lafraire –Research Group Leader – Cognitive Science at Institut Paul Bocuse Research Center
"Study of Food categories in anorexic patients using implicit methodologies"
Patients with eating disorders (AAC), and more specifically anorexia nervosa (AM), have a particularly high mortality rate (Sullivan, 1995), up to 2 to 8% in patients with AM (Herzog et al., 2000; Neumarker, 1997; Nussbaum, 1992; Woodside, 1995). The hyperselectability of patients results in a systematic elimination of the diet perceived as caloric (Drewnowski et al., 1988, 1991) but also by the rejection of food considered impure (Rozin, 1997, Skarderud, 2007). As a result, it is likely that the moral properties attributed to foods are implicitly associated with perceptual markers of energy density. Recently, the color and degree of food processing has been identified as energy density markers (Foroni et al., 2016).

This intervention will aim to present an experiment, carried out in collaboration with Lola Tournayre (IPBR / UQTR-Loricorps) and Clinea, testing moral (pure / impure). The paradigm was a Go / No-Go association task, GNAT (Nosek & Banaji, 2001), programmed as Éprime ©, and deployed on 32 patients with anorexia nervosa (24.4 years ± 4.7, BMI = 16), 6 ± 2.1) and 32 control subjects (24.7 years ± 3.4, BMI = 21.6 ± 3.2). Food stimuli were 48 images of FoodPics database (Blechert et al., 2014): 24 processed and 24 unprocessed foods. These images were associated with 24 words related to the concept of purity and 24 words related to the notion of impurity (Graham et al., 2008) under conditions that are congruent (eg Transformed-impure) or incongruous (eg, not transformed). -impure). The reaction time analyzes formed by the existence of two implicit associations: transformed-impure and not transformed-purely in anorexic subjects but also in the control of the population. These results are surprising. The implicit associations imply non-trivial in both populations, we invite to continue the study of the dimension, the moral of the representations, other variables such as the measures of the inhibitory control and the distortions of the body diagram.

Isabel Urdapilleta - Professor in health psychology in the Faculty of Vincennes Saint-Denis - France. Her training includes a PhD in Cognitive psychology (Nestlé France - Sensory Evaluation Laboratory) and an « HRD » in clinical and social psychology - entitled : «Dietary and sensory representations: an approach by categorization”. Her research involves examining beliefs and representations that can lead to health behaviors.
“Stigmatisation, body appearance and eating behaviors”
After recalling the preponderant place of the body, appearances and standards of beauty in the history of the West, we look at its place in our contemporary society. This body that "be in the world" by a series of practices, models and values in force in our social system, is also a support of social judgments. This is what we show in a first study aimed at understanding the determinants of the judgment of individuals, in a professional situation, from their bodily appearance more or less close to the standard of thinness. We conclude that this body, a sign of identity, is sometimes the object of stigmatizing judgments. This is what we observe in a second study by analyzing the representation of obese people held responsible for their bodies described as "ugly and ugly" or "unhealthy". Follows for the stigmatized subject of exacerbated behaviors to avoid discrimination and shame related to body appearance. It is that we show in a third study in which we filmed the behavior of women and men suffering from obesity during their daily activities: when they move, buy or consume food. In a fourth study, we examine the perception and / or representation of one's own corpulence of various populations (young women suffering from anorexia or obesity, etc.) by asking about the links between stigmatization and bodily representations.

All the studies presented use a variety of methodologies, ranging from verbal association tasks, research interviews, to experimental methods, but also ecological by the use of a micro-camera filming the activity of the subject or of photographic distortion method. They are in the field of social psychology but also clinical or cognitive.

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